The Vedas are the sacred scriptures of Hinduism and are regarded as the oldest religious texts in the world. Thought to have been composed at least 3,500 years ago, the Vedas are a collection of hymns, magical incantations, dramatic mythological accounts, and sacred formulas for enlightenment.
There are Four Vedas (the Rig Veda, the Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda), each of which may be further subdivided into four parts – the Samhitas (hymns), the Brahmanas (rituals), the Aranyakas (theologies) and the Upanishads (philosophies).
Who Wrote the Vedas? What are they About?
While it is not entirely clear who wrote the Vedas, it is actually a non-question, as the focus has been traditionally placed on the message, rather than on the messenger. Some believe that the Vedas were given directly to the sages from God, and then passed down by word of mouth until it was finally codified and written down several hundred years later. Others, on the other hand, believe that the Vedas were revealed by the sages themselves.
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Some believe the Vedas were passed to sages by God, while others believe the messages came from the sages themselves. ( Non-random-Thoughts)
Generally speaking, the Vedas are composed of Hindu spiritual knowledge that can be applied to all aspects of life. The word ‘ Veda’ itself means wisdom, knowledge, or vision and the social, legal, and religious customs laid out in the ancient text continue to have an influence on the lives of Hindu believers today – however the Vedas themselves are not commonly read even by devout followers of the religion today. The Upanishads, on the other hand, are more popular and are often read by theology students around the world.
Rig Veda – Knowledge of the Hymns of Praise
The oldest of the four Vedas is the Rig Veda , which means ‘Knowledge of the Hymns of Praise’. It is also regarded as the most important Veda, and has contributed greatly to the other three sets of texts. The Rig Veda consists of 1028 hymns divided into 10 books called mandalas, and is used for recitation.
The Rig Veda is an important source for Vedic history, and many significant hymns, such as the Purusha sukta, which gives a description of the spiritual unity of the universe, and the Nasadiya sukta, which is also known as the ‘Hymn of Creation’.
Rig Veda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. ( Public Domain )
Sama Veda – Knowledge of the Melodies
The Sama Veda (‘Knowledge of the Melodies’) is used for chanting, and is composed almost entirely of verses from the Rig Veda. The fundamental difference between these two Vedas is that the verses from the Rig Veda are arranged in a different way in the Sama Veda, so as to facilitate its purpose of being chanted at the Vedic sacrifices.
Yajur Veda – Knowledge of Sacrificial Formulas
Yajur Veda means ‘Knowledge of the Sacrificial Formulas’, and contains explanatory prose commentaries on the way religious rites and sacrifices are to be performed. In other words, it functions as a liturgical handbook for priests. This Veda is divided into two parts, the White Yajur Veda and the Black Yajur Veda. This Veda has been compared in function to the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead .
The Yajur Veda sets out how religious rites and ceremonies are performed. ( CC by SA 3.0 )
Atharva Veda – Knowledge of the Magic Formulas
The last (and youngest) of the four Vedas in the Atharva Veda , which means ‘Knowledge of the Magic Formulas’. This Veda is named after a group of priests, and is quite different from the three preceding groups of texts. The Atharva Veda is more folkloristic in style, and consists of charms, spells, and magical incantations.
These include spells aimed at attracting lovers, causing or preventing harm, and protecting against diseases and death. Book I, for example, has several charms against fever, a few charms against poison, and charms against worms (for oneself / for one’s cattle / for one’s children). There are also charms that were meant to combat spiritual, rather than physical illnesses. These include charms against possession by demons of disease, and charms for driving away demons.
This Veda is considered by some as not belonging to the Vedas at all, though it has been noted that with regards to the study of Vedic history and sociology, it is next in importance to the Rig Veda.
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Image of Codex Cashmiriensis folio 187a from Atharva-Veda Saṁhitā. ( Public Domain )
The Importance of the Vedas Apart from Religion
While the Vedas are best known as a source of spiritual knowledge, they are also significant for the material knowledge they contain. The Vedas are recognized as having made much contribution to modern knowledge and science.
For example, in the field of mathematics, the concepts of zero, infinity, as well as the decimal system have been found in the Vedas. Moreover, some of the material knowledge from the Vedas have been confirmed by modern science . These include Vedic cosmology and the use of mantras to enhance the overall well-being of an individual.
Top image: Reading the Vedas. Source: IndiaFacts
By Wu Mingren
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